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Studies of European anchovy in the A. O. Kovalevsky Institute of Marine Biological Research of RAS

Тип публикации

Материалы в сборнике трудов конференции

Язык eng
Сборник 6th Anchovy Workshop = 6. Hamsi Çalıştayı, 4 May, Trabzon, Turkey : proc. book / Central Fisheries Research Institute
Конференция Название: 6th Anchovy Workshop
Место проведения: Trabzon, Turkey
Даты: 4 May 2018
Год 2018
Выходные данные Страницы: 18-30
Авторы
  1. Nikol'skij V. N. (Nikolsky V. N.)
  2. Yuneva T. V.
  3. Chesalin M. V.
DOI
Усл. п. л.
Абстракт The purpose of this compilation is to review briefly the recent papers of our IMBR colleagues related to European anchovies, and to outline the results of the recent works of our group at the Department of Animal Physiology and Biochemistry. Scientists from three departments of our institute carry out research on anchovy in the following fields: Dr. Klimova (Dep. of Plankton) studies eggs and larvae, Prof. Zuyev (Head of Dep. of Ichthyology) directs traditional ichthyological research, and we continue to study nutritional condition and food supply of small pelagic fish (sprat and anchovy) based on monitoring data on fish lipids, which Prof. Shulman started in 1960. We renewed monitoring the condition of anchovy since 2005, thanks to a joint project between scientists from Bulgaria, Turkey, Ukraine and Russia. One of the tasks of that project was to compare the anchovy condition in the northern and the southern Black Sea (off Sevastopol and Sinop). Before the start of the project, we assumed that we would need to identify the Azov anchovy and the Black Sea anchovy, because both of these subspecies can winter near the Crimean Peninsula. Therefore, the geneticists Prof. Dobrovolov and Dr. Ivanova were invited to the project to investigate the genetic structure of anchovy using polymorphism of muscle proteins as genetic-biochemical markers. They analyzed more than 2000 fish collected from different locations, including anchovy we took from Sinop and Sevastopol and showed that along with the Black Sea subspecies, the Azov anchovy wintered not only near Sevastopol, but also near Sinop. The authors proposed new scheme of wintering migration of the Azov anchovy from Crimea to Bulgarian coast and further towards to wintering grounds off Anatolian coast (Ivanova et al., 2013). Based on numerous literature and his own observations, Zuyev (2014) proposed new scheme on multilevel intraspecific structure of European anchovy which is represented by two subspecies (races) in the Azov-Black Sea basin. The Black Sea subspecies inhabits the entire Black sea and dominate in open (saltwater) areas. It is divided into Western and Eastern populations. The Azov subspecies is distributed mainly in coastal, desalinated regions of the Black Sea and in the Sea of Azov. Zuyev suggested existence of two populations of the Azov anchovy in the northern part of the basin: one in the Sea of Azov and another in the north- western shelf of the Black Sea, and possibly third population along the Anatolian coast. His opinion corresponds to the conclusion on the existence of two functionally distinct ecotypes of the European anchovy in the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea: coastal and offshore ecotypes (Catanese et al., 2017). In several articles, Zuyev with colleagues used the otoliths length/width ratio to identify anchovy subspecies from commercial catches. They found that in the winter of 2007/2008, all anchovies caught off the southern coast of Crimea belonged to Black Sea subspecies (Zuyev et al., 2009). In anchovy caught west of Crimea two years later, the otolith aspect ratio had bimodal distribution suggesting two overlapping populations close to normal distributions. The first population was identified as the “Northwest coastal population”, which was very similar to the Azov subspecies, but it spawned and wintered on the northwest shelf of the Black Sea. The second population was identified as the Black Sea anchovy (Zuyev et al., 2011). Later, the authors distinguished two types of otoliths: typical for the Azov subspecies “ellipsoid” otolith, and a typical for the Black Sea subspecies "spindle-shaped" one (Zuyev et al., 2014). The aspect ratio differed significantly for these otolith types, showing two overlapping distributions. The authors concluded that the proportion of Black Sea subspecies in the eastern part of Crimea near Kerch Strait increased from 2 to 42% from 2006 to 2012, which they attributed to the rise of the water temperature in the north part of the Black Sea. Recently, Zuyev and Klimova (2017) investigated anchovies that spawned and wintered near the southwestern coast of the Crimean Peninsula (Sevastopol–Balaklava). They noted a shift in the spawning peak of anchovy to earlier period: the spawning peak occurred usually in August in 2000–2005, while it was observed in July and even in June in 2006-2013. Besides, absolute number of eggs (spawning efficiency) tended to increase. Based on otolith aspect ratio, the authors also found that the share of the Black Sea subspecies was 33% in 2000–2004, but increased to 77% in 2005–2011. The total catch of anchovy increased three-fold during those years. The authors concluded that increase in the water temperature in the coastal zone of the northern Black Sea created more favorable conditions for the warm-water anchovy. According to Dr. Klimova (pers. comm.) the increase in the abundance and species diversity of ichthyoplankton during summer spawning season indicates positive changes in the Black Sea plankton community. Vodyasova and Soldatov (2017) noted that the subspecies of European anchovy in mixed groups cannot be evaluated correctly based only on the otolith aspect ratio. Vodyasova proposed the angle of the central otolith groove (β) between rostrum and antirostrum as an additional morphological parameter. The otolith angles were significantly different for different subspecies and had a very small transgression. Therefore, this parameter had a larger contribution to the subspecies differentiation than aspect ratio. All aggregations of the anchovy they studied in different locations along western coast of Crimea were mixed, in different proportions. However, we note that their conclusions were based on small samples of otoliths and they did not investigate the dependence of the otolith angle on fish size.
Библиографическая ссылка:
Nikolsky V. N., Yuneva T. V., Chesalin M. V. Studies of European anchovy in the A. O. Kovalevsky Institute of Marine Biological Research of RAS // 6th Anchovy Workshop = 6. Hamsi Çalıştayı, 4 May, Trabzon, Turkey : proc. book / Central Fisheries Research Institute. Trabzon, 2018. P. 18-30.

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